Back to Basics: Materials Testing in Automobile Industry
Each application within the automotive manufacturing process requires a unique set of testing requirements.
It’s apparent every time you get behind the wheel, take a taxi or hail a car service. The automotive industry has an enormous impact on everyday life in the United States, and it continues to affect the lives of millions. The auto parts industry in the United States is estimated to be more than four million direct and indirect jobs, according to a study conducted by IHS Markit. Those jobs require unwavering attention to quality, and as the industry continues to evolve, the role of quality is as important as ever.
Electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid vehicles are just a few of the options manufacturers are working on. With the revolution in artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things, and next-generation automotive technologies, companies must have the right instruments for analyzing, testing and evaluating materials, parts, and modules, as well as analyzing data from R&D to quality control.
Materials Tests for Automotive PartsThe strength of materials is an important component of automotive safety. Because safety is critical, standards are in place to ensure material performance. Thus, when selecting materials, strength must be evaluated to satisfy the standards.
The material strength is largely determined by the composition in metal materials, though with polymers it depends on the type and density of the molecules used.
Therefore, a material composition analysis must be done to ensure the material strength is stable. In order to do this, product quality control staff conduct strength evaluations and composition analyses of raw materials used in automobiles, including metals, resins, and other raw materials. Tensile, compression, bending and hardness tests are used for strength evaluations. Evaluations of material composition requires inorganic element analysis and compound analysis. Along with acceptance inspections for materials from suppliers, manufacturers also analyze defects during the process and use the information for process improvement.
Testing static characteristics of springs, failure tests of parts, and strength evaluations of materials—including metals, plastics, rubbers, and films—is necessary. These may include acceptance inspections, evaluations of material, and tests to confirm changes in characteristics due to machining. Testing may be done in accordance with ISO, ASTM, and other standards.
Tensile testing is a workhorse of the automotive testing process. In addition to being used for the car body, it is also used to evaluate the O-rings, seat belts and seats. The breaking strength of seat belts is tested—obviously a critical aspect of automotive safety—as well as the foam rubber of a car seat. Car seats are also evaluated using compression testing. As drivers may spend a lot of time in their vehicles, comfort is no small matter. Developing a comfortable car seat takes place through identification of repulsive and restorative forces, then creating a database linked to actual subjective evaluations. Because of the size of the seats, a wide-design testing instrument is often required.
For manual transmissions, the engine and drive train are connected via the clutch at every change. As you might expect, the clutch functions hundreds or thousands of times during a drive and requires optimal tuning. For high-output engines, the strength of engine/drive train connection must be sufficient to transmit engine power. Therefore, strength testing is implemented to evaluate clutch spring force. A machine with a variety of jigs, including compression plates for spring compression, and displacement measuring devices can enable the measurement of even slight distortions.
Locating DefectsProduct defects, when they do occur, require investigation of the cause of the defect, such as what damaged the part and how this occurred. In this situation, microscopic analyses, surface analyses, and morphological observations are also performed. Strength evaluations are also performed on the materials in the defective parts in order to locate a cause from multiple perspectives. Other assessments would include evaluations of the processes leading to damage and problems via endurance evaluations, as well as strength evaluations under simulated use conditions, and failure tests of actual products and parts.